Program > Invited Lectures
Program > Invited Lectures
In order to make better decisions concerning the use of underground space, particularly in urban environments, the functions and operations of the human and physical infrastructure systems must be understood in an integrated framework with common and meaningful metrics and representations. Considering the importance of economics, sustainability and vulnerability to extreme events, decision makers need an understanding of the valuation for underground space as a resource in order to consider life-cycle engineering and trade-offs and pros and cons of above- and below-ground infrastructure investments. This paper discusses an appropriate framework and metrics for infrastructure analysis that can include complex systems representations for all sectors – physical, social and environmental.
Wang Ruia,b, Ge Weiyaa,b1, Cheng Guanghuaa,b, Li Xiaozhaoc
aEngineering Innovation Center for Urban Underground Space Exploration and Evaluation, Ministry of Natural Resources, 534 Zhongshan East Road Nanjing, Jiangsu Province 210016, PR China
bNanjing Center, China geological Survey, 534 Zhongshan East Road Nanjing, Jiangsu Province 210016, PR China
cSchool of Earth Sciences and Engineering, Nanjing University, Zhugongshan Building, Xianlin Avenue, Nanjing, Jiangsu Province 210023, PR China
Since the 21st century, with the rapid expansion of major cities in China, land shortage, traffic and environment problems have become the bottleneck of urban development. Policy makers were gradually aware of the important role urban underground space (UUS) plays in the urban sustainable development process. Top-down policies, regulations and promotion measures have been introduced since the Twelfth Five-Year Plan. Thus, a large number of underground constructions has been exploited, construction standard and research level has been continuously improved. As a representative of the eastern cities with advanced economy and complicated geological conditions, Nanjing can be seen as a microcosm of the UUS development in China. This paper reviews the history, present situation and achievements of UUS utilization in Nanjing, and analyses the key driving factors. Next, the paper discusses the challenges that may restrict the sustainable development of UUS in Nanjing, and puts forward corresponding countermeasures.
Jure Žalohar, Uroš Herlec, Marko Komac
He is currently an independent consultant, the President of the European Federation of Geologists (EFG), an external researcher at the Faculty for civil engineering at the University of Ljubljana, an Associate Professor for GIS at University of Nova Gorica and a Member of the IntRaw Observatory Board as the Treasurer. From 2006 to 2014 Marko was the director of the Geological Survey of Slovenia where he also worked as a part-time researcher. From November 2016 to May 2019 Marko was the member of the Board of EFG, where he served as the External Relations Officer. From 2012 to 2016 he was a Vice-President of the IUGS, and in years 2011 and 2012 he was the President of the EuroGeoSurveys. He has more than 21 year experiences in the field of landslide analyses, geographical information systems (GIS), application of remote sensing in geology, spatial analyses and modelling, geostatistics, mass-movements analyses, management of organisations and teams, and international networking. Currently he’s involved in several EU-funded geological projects. He's an author or co-author of over 500 bibliographic units mainly from the above listed research areas and several times IronMan 70.3 finisher.
Eduardo de Mulder
Cities will inevitably grow underground. Several factors will push this development, including a growing world population, continued urbanisation, increased lack of urban space above ground and a growing environmental awareness and need for sustainable development. Regardless progress in technology, not all options for underground development can be implemented anywhere. Some geological constraints exclude or seriously hamper sustainable underground development. But some other geological factors might rather stimulate such development. In this paper both types of geological factors will be reviewed. In addition, an overview on worldwide underground line-infrastructural development will be presented. Finally, a ranking mechanism for underground development for various stratigraphic units and rock types in The Netherlands will be discussed.
This presentation demonstrates a CT scanning and image analysis workflow to characterize wellbore cement degradation under corrosive geologic CO2 storage (GCS) conditions. The workflow includes 1) acquisition of raw CT images of the cement sample (before and after exposure to CO2); 2) application of rigid registration to align raw CT images; 3) acquisition of grayscale intensity difference images; 4) application of noise filtering technique to obtain images with good quality; 5) acquisition of 3D pore structure change of the cement sample after CO2 exposure from grayscale intensity difference images, showing degradation of wellbore cement. To demonstrate an application of the workflow, an experiment of reaction between CO2 and wellbore cement under corrosive GCS conditions was conducted and the wellbore cement samples used in the experiment went through aforementioned CT scanning and image analysis procedures. CT image analysis results demonstrate a region with increased porosity in the exterior of the cement sample (Zone 1) and a region with decreased porosity next to Zone 1 due to CaCO3 precipitation (Zone 2). Next to Zone 2, a region with increased porosity due to Ca(OH)2 and C-S-H dissolution (Zone 3) was observed. In summary, this study proves feasibility to use 3D CT scanning and CT image analysis techniques to investigate CO2-induced degradation of wellbore cement.
Dr Zhou is currently Director for Asia (Singapore) and Board member of the Associated research Centers for the Urban Underground Space (ACUUS), a member of the Advisory Board of the International Tunnelling Association Committee on Underground Space. He was Adjunct Associate Professor at the Nanyang Technological University, Singapore from 2011 to 2018; member of the Board of Judges for the ASEAN Minerals Award from 2016 to 2017, Vice President for Asia of the International Society for Rock Mechanics (ISRM) from October 2011 to May 2015 and chaired the ISRM Commission on Rock Dynamics from 2008 to 2011, Vice President of ACUUS from 2013 to 2016. He was the founding President of the Society for Rock Mechanics & Engineering Geology Singapore from 2006 to 2012 and founding Council member of the Tunnelling and Underground Construction Society Singapore. He was congress co-chair for the 12th ISRM International Congress on Rock Mechanics held Oct 2011, Beijing, China, and was organising Chair of the 13th World Conference of the Associated research Centers for the Urban Underground Space held in Singapore in Nov 2012.
Despite its promise and many benefits for sustainable urban development, the use of underground space has tended to be the last resort, due to high development cost and the complexities in the planning and development of underground space. In 2010, the Economic Strategies Committee of the Singapore government made developing underground space part of the government’s long-term economic strategy with specific recommendations on master planning, geological investigations, investment in research and development, and various policy issues. With this, the use of underground space has been elevated to a strategic level and has become an economic imperative in land-scarce Singapore. The development of rock caverns in Singapore has been part of this strategy.
The first feasibility study of rock cavern construction started in 1990, and invariably led to the development of the underground ammunition storage facility, opening up a new frontier for space creation in land-scarce Singapore. This was followed by the Jurong rock cavern project for hydrocarbon storage, southeast Asia’s largest underground oil storage facility. With the government push for a concerted long-term development, rock cavern development in Singapore is positioned to accelerate.
This presentation gives a review of the history of rock cavern space development in Singapore, highlights the potential utilizations, and discusses the rock engineering practice and experiences for cavern development.
Firstly introduce activities of Engineering Advancement Association of Japan (ENAA) and Geo-space Engineering Center (GEC). Introduce Advantages to use underground space for green cities. Introduce three kinds of Commercial and Life-related Infrastructures. Introduce two kinds of Urban Energy Facilities. Introduce two kinds of Urban Transport Infrastructures. Finally introduce Ongoing and future projects in Japan.
Since 2018, Chengdu Municipal People's Government and China Geological Survey have jointly funded and implemented the project of "geological survey of urban underground space resources in Chengdu". This project aims to serve the development and utilization of urban underground space and the management of underground space resources. Main geological problems and high-quality geological resources within the area of 1584 km2 and 0-200m depth are going to be comprehensively identified by combining use of about 300,000 known geological references and technologies (e.g. comprehensive geophysical exploration and drilling) to build a fully attributed 3D geological model. A Chengdu urban geological information system and underground space application decision-making platform, finally, will be built based the 3D geological model.
This report focuses on the process of geological survey, including 1) main geological problems (i.e., distribution of glauberite, active fault, water-rich and pebbly sand stratum) and identification of high-quality underground resources (i.e., groundwater resources and shallow geothermal resources), 2) the application and progress of geophysical exploration technologies of underground space in cities with different working and geological conditions, 3) the process and prospect of the online update and fully attributed 3D geological model, and 4) the development and prospect of comprehensive evaluation methods of underground space oriented by development, utilization, and management of urban underground space.
Compared with other methods, such as gravity, magnetic and DC method, seismic reflection could usually get a higher resolution and S/N ratio result in underground space. Development and utilization of underground space resources in Shanghai are used out in the subsurface from 0 to 30 meters. And the deep underground space resources will been developed in the future. In the process of development and utilization of deep underground space, the survey of sand and clay layer and confined water is a considerable geology and engineering problem. S-wave seismic reflection has higher resolution than P-wave in the near surface. VSP method provides the relationship of borehole lithology and seismic waves, and build the interpretation bridge between geology and geophysics. Combining S-wave seismic reflection and VSP result detect the distribution of sand, clay and confined water and recognize lithology characters successfully. An effective exploration method to solve deep underground space resources geology survey is proposed.